Ultraviolet radiation is a type of electromagnetic radiation. The main source of ultraviolet radiation is the sun's rays, as well as artificial sources of UV radiation, for example, in tanning salons.
UV radiation is a source of radiation — less intense than, for example, X-rays, but more powerful than radio waves. This property gives UV rays the ability to take an electron from an atom or molecule, i.e., ionize (therefore, radiation is called ionizing). Ionizing radiation can damage cell DNA, which can cause skin cancer. One of the most important and simplest ways to reduce the risk of skin cancer is to protect it from UV radiation. Tanning beds also emit UV radiation and cause the same damage to the skin as if you were sunbathing.
Types of skin cancer that can cause ultraviolet radiation:
- • Basalioma and squamous cell carcinoma. Risk factors are spending a long time in the sun (including tanning on the beach), in an outdoor pool, living in "sunny" regions, having sunburns in the past (the more there were, the higher the risk), the presence of signs of damage caused by sun exposure on the skin ("Liver" spots, actinic keratosis, solar elastosis).
- • Melanoma. Risk factors are similar to those described above. I would especially like to highlight the "periodic" insolation (sunburn, outdoor water sports, vacation in sunny countries). Ethnic factors affect the likelihood of melanoma: the tumor is more common in people with fair skin and light or red hair (Fitzpatrick skin phototypes I and II).
To protect the skin from the harmful effects of ultraviolet rays, doctors recommend:
- • Do not go outside from 10:00 to 16:00 when the sun's rays are strongest.
- • Do not use tanning beds.
- • Use sunscreen and lip balm at least 30 SPF. It must be applied 30 minutes before going outside. Reapply the cream every two hours after swimming or sweating.
- • Cover up. Wear dark, heavy-duty clothing. Choose a hat with a large brim to protect your ears and neck.
- • Wear sunglasses with UVA and UVB protection.
Signs of neoplastic skin diseases:
- • The first sign is the appearance on the surface of the skin of a small spot, a gray-yellow nodule or a shiny plaque;
- • In the early stages, the disease has no subjective manifestations and does not cause any discomfort;
- • With an increase in the tumor, it may begin to itch, itch, there is a feeling of discomfort, tingling;
- • Further, in the middle of the neoplasm, a small weeping sore may appear;
- • Sometimes it starts bleeding or crusting. The middle of this formation can heal, but at the same time the tendency to peripheral growth remains;
- • When palpating the base of this neoplasm, you can feel some tissue compaction, although there are no signs of inflammation.
There is a generally accepted algorithm for the assessment of pigmented lesions ABCDE, which can help identify "suspicious". It consists of the first letters of the evaluated features:
- • A (asymmetry, asymmetry) - the appearance of asymmetry of education;
- • B (boundary, contour) - the presence of uneven, "torn" edges and jaggedness;
- • C (color, color) - uneven pigmentation with the presence of dark and bluish shades;
- • D (diameter, diameter) - diameter is more than 6 mm;
- • E (evolution, change) - change over time.
If you have any of the above symptoms or you notice suspicious skin lesions, see your doctor right away.