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Esophageal cancer screening

There are two main types of malignant tumors, they account for more than 95% of all neoplasms of the esophagus:

  • • Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common form of esophageal cancer and is more common in the upper and middle esophagus.
  • • Adenocarcinoma - usually develops in the lower part of the esophagus at the border of the stomach and is associated with the reflux of gastric juice onto the lining of the lower part of the esophagus (Barrett's esophagus).

The rest of the tumors are much less common:

  • • Sarcoma of the soft tissues of the esophagus
  • • Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST)

Doctors at the National Cancer Research Center strongly recommend timely screening for esophageal cancer, regardless of the presence of symptoms.

The risk factors listed below are the basis for a mandatory regular examination by a doctor and passing the necessary examinations.

Causes and risk factors:

  • Smoking tobacco;
  • Abuse of strong alcoholic beverages;
  • Chemical burns of the esophagus (acetic acid, alkalis);
  • Chronic reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus (gastroesophageal reflux disease).
  • Precancerous diseases:
  • Barrett's esophagus is a condition in which the squamous epithelial cells of the esophageal mucosa are replaced by intestinal-type cells. This usually occurs as a result of prolonged reflux of gastric juice and bile into the esophagus (congenital short esophagus, hiatal hernia, insufficiency of the muscle valve between the esophagus and stomach - the lower esophageal sphincter).
  • Achalasia of the esophagus is a neuromuscular disease in which the motility of the walls of the esophagus is impaired and the ability of the lower esophageal sphincter to relax when swallowing. As a result, food lingers in the dilated esophagus for a long time, without passing into the stomach.
  • Cicatricial stricture - cicatricial narrowing of the esophagus after a chemical burn or as a result of chronic inflammation.

Esophageal cancer symptoms:

  • Swallowing disorder (dysphagia) - a feeling that food gets stuck in the throat
  • Vomiting (nausea)
  • Pain when swallowing
  • Weight loss
  • Pain or discomfort in the chest or back
  • Indigestion or heartburn over a long period of time
  • Cough
  • Hoarseness of voice

! Not all of the above symptoms are specific, that is, they may be associated with other diseases, but if they bother you for a long time, you should consult a doctor.

For the prevention and prevention of the disease, it is necessary:

  • Regular examination by a gastroenterologist;
  • FGDS;
  • Elimination of risk factors.

In case of suspicion, the doctor will send for the necessary diagnostic tests:

  • Fluoroscopy of the esophagus with contrast enhancement;
  • Esophagogastroduodenoscopy;
  • CT scan;
  • PET / CT;
  • Endo-ultrasound.

At the NROC, you can undergo high-quality diagnostics, get a "second opinion" about the type of tumor cells in the diagnosis, and, if necessary, immediately begin and receive qualified treatment.


         Citizens of Kazakhstan have the right to freely choose their doctor and medical organization in accordance with subparagraph 3, paragraph 1, Article 77 of the Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan "On health and the health care system".

         In addition, the patient has the right to freely choose the organization of health care during planned hospitalization, which is enshrined in the order of the Minister of Health and Social Development of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated September 29, 2015 No. 761 "On approval of the Rules for the provision of inpatient care."